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Voiced and Voiceless Consonants

الموضوع في 'ملتقى اللغة الانجليزية' بواسطة ahmed28, بتاريخ ‏2012-03-29.


  1. ahmed28

    ahmed28 تربوي جديد عضو ملتقى المعلمين

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    ‏2012-03-29
    teacher of english
    Voiced and Voiceless Consonants
    One problem that many students face in pronunciation is whether a consonant is voiced or voiceless. This guide should help you understand the differences and give you some simple rules.
    What is Voiced?
    A simple explanation of voiced consonants is that they use the voice. This is easy to test by putting your finger on your throat. If you feel a vibration the consonant is voiced. Here is a list of some voiced consonants. Pronounce each consonant sound (not the letter) and feel the vibration of your vocal chords.
    b
    d
    th (as in then)
    v
    l
    r
    z
    j (as in Jane)
    What is Voiceless?
    Voiceless consonants do not use the voice. They are percussive and use hard sounds. Once again, you can test if a consonant is voiceless by putting your finger on your throat. You will feel no vibration in your throat, just a short explosion of air as you pronounce. Pronounce each of these consonant sounds and feel NO vibration in your throat
    p
    t
    k
    s
    sh
    ch
    th (as in thing)
    Careful! Some Consonants Voiced, but are Voiceless
    When consonants are put in groups they can change the voiced or voiceless quality of the consonant that follows. A great example of this is the past simple form of regular verbs. As you know, regular verbs add -ed to the end of the verb in the past simple.
    play – played
    wash – washed
    live - lived etc.
    These past simple verbs all end in '-ed'. However, some of the verbs are pronounced with a voiceless't' sound and some are pronounced with the voiced'd' sound. Why? Here are the rules:
    If -ed is preceded by a voiceless consonant sound (p, k, sh, etc.) -ed sounds as a voiceless't'. Remember that the 'e' is silent.
    If -ed is preceded by a voiced consonant sound (d, b, v, etc.) -ed sounds as a voiced 'd'. Remember that the 'e' is silent.
    If -ed is preceded by a vowel sound (often 'ay') -ed sounds as a voiced'd' because vowels are always voiced. Remember that the 'e' is silent.
    Exception: If -ed is preceded by't' pronounce a voiced -id. In this case, the 'e' is pronounced.
    [FONT=&quot]Pronunciation of final “ed”[/FONT]


    How to Pronounce «-ed» in English?

    v The past simple tense and past participle of all regular verbs end in «-ed». For example:
    base verb
    Past simple
    past participle
    Work​
    Worked
    worked





    v In addition, many adjectives are made from the past participle and so end in «-ed». For




    example: I like painted furniture

    The question is: How do we pronounce the «-ed»?

    The answer is: In 3 ways - /Id/ or /t/ or /d/


    If the base verb ends​
    in one of these sounds:
    Example​
    base verb*:
    examplewith «-ed»:
    pronouncethe «-ed»:
    extra​
    syllable?​
    Unvoiced​
    /t/​
    Want​
    wanted [FONT=&quot]/ˈwɑːn.ţɪd/[/FONT]​
    /[FONT=&quot]ɪd[/FONT]/
    yes​
    Voiced​
    /d/​
    End​
    Ended [FONT=&quot]/en.dɪd/[/FONT]​
    Unvoiced​
    /p/​
    Hope​
    hoped [FONT=&quot]/`hoʊpt/[/FONT]​
    /[FONT=&quot]t[/FONT]/
    no​
    /f/​
    Laugh​
    Laughed [læf[FONT=&quot]t[/FONT]/l[FONT=&quot]ɑ[/FONT]ːf[FONT=&quot]t[/FONT]]​
    /s/​
    Fax​
    Faxed[FONT=&quot]/fakst/[/FONT]​
    //​
    Wash​
    Washed [FONT=&quot]/,wɑʃt/[/FONT]​
    /t/​
    Watch​
    Watched [FONT=&quot]/[/FONT]w[FONT=&quot]ɑ[/FONT]tʃ[FONT=&quot]t[/FONT]/​
    /k/​
    Like​
    Liked [FONT=&quot]/[/FONT]la[FONT=&quot]ɪ[/FONT]k[FONT=&quot]t[/FONT]/​
    Voiced​
    all other sounds,
    for example...​
    Play​
    played [FONT=&quot]/[/FONT]pleɪ[FONT=&quot]d[/FONT]/​
    /[FONT=&quot]d[/FONT]/
    Allow​
    Allowed [FONT=&quot]/[/FONT]ə'laʊd/​
    Beg​
    Begged [FONT=&quot]/[/FONT]begd/​

    Note that it is the sound that is important, not the letter or spelling. For example, "fax" ends in the letter "x" but the sound /s/; "like" ends in the letter "e" but the sound /k/.

    Exceptions

    The following adjectives ending in «-ed» are always pronounced with /[FONT=&quot]ɪd[/FONT]/:


    [FONT=&quot]Aged / blessed / crooked / dogged / learned / naked / ragged / wicked / wretche[/FONT]

    This pattern can also be found with plural forms. If the consonant preceding the's' is voiced,'s' will sound as voiced 'z':
    Chairs
    machines
    bags
    If the consonant preceding the's' is voiceless,'s' will sound as voiceless's':
    Bats
    parks
    pipes


    [FONT=&quot]Pronunciation of final “-s” or “-es”[/FONT]

    How do we Pronounce the final “-s” or “-es” in English?

    v The simple present of all main verbs ends in “-s” or “-es”. For example:
    v
    base verb
    Simple present
    Work​
    Play ​
    Works
    Plays
    v
    v In addition, all countable nouns end in “-s” or “-es” in the plural. For example:
    v
    Singular noun
    Plural noun
    Taxi​
    Baby ​
    Taxis
    Babies

    We pronounce the “-s” or "es “-: In 3 ways - [FONT=&quot]/[/FONT] S[FONT=&quot] /[/FONT]or[FONT=&quot]/[/FONT] Z[FONT=&quot] /[/FONT]or [FONT=&quot]/[/FONT] IZ[FONT=&quot] /[/FONT]









    extra
    Syllable?
    pronounce
    the “-s” or “-es”:
    example
    with “-s” or “-es”:
    example
    verb/noun:
    If the verb / noun ends
    in one of these sounds:
    NO
    /S/
    Unvoiced
    Laugh /læfs/ /l[FONT=&quot]ɑ[/FONT]ːfs/
    Laugh
    /f/
    Unvoiced
    Talks /t[FONT=&quot]ɔ[/FONT]ːks/
    Talk
    /k/
    Stops /st[FONT=&quot]ɑ[/FONT]ps/st[FONT=&quot]ɒ[/FONT]ps/
    Stop
    /p/
    states/ste[FONT=&quot]ɪ[/FONT]ts/
    State
    /t/
    Months /m[FONT=&quot]ʌ[/FONT]s/
    Month
    /θ/
    YES
    /IZ/
    Unvoiced
    Taxes /tæks[FONT=&quot]ɪ[/FONT]z/
    Tax
    /ks/
    Mases /me[FONT=&quot]ɪ[/FONT]z[FONT=&quot]ɪ[/FONT]z/
    Mase
    /z/
    Judges /"d[FONT=&quot]ʒ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ʌ[/FONT]d[FONT=&quot]ʒ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ɪ[/FONT]z/
    Judge
    /d[FONT=&quot]ʒ[/FONT]/
    Washes /w[FONT=&quot]ɑʃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ɪ[/FONT]z/
    Wash
    /[FONT=&quot]ʃ[/FONT]/
    Watches /w[FONT=&quot]ɑ[/FONT]t[FONT=&quot]ʃ[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ɪ[/FONT]z/
    Watch
    /t[FONT=&quot]ʃ[/FONT]/
    Kisses /k[FONT=&quot]ɪ[/FONT]s[FONT=&quot]ɪ[/FONT]z/
    Kiss
    /s/
    NO
    /Z/
    Voiced
    Rubs /r[FONT=&quot]ʌ[/FONT]bz/
    Rub
    All other consonant
    Sounds:
    /b/d/g/l/
    m/n/ŋ/r/v/w/ð/
    + all vowel sounds
    Voiced
    Allows /ə.la[FONT=&quot]ʊ[/FONT]z/
    Allow
    Begs /begz/
    beg
    Sings /s[FONT=&quot]ɪ[/FONT]ŋz/
    Sing
    Fumes /fjuːmz/
    Fume
    Loves /l[FONT=&quot]ʌ[/FONT]vz/
    Love
    Clothes /klə[FONT=&quot]ʊ[/FONT]ðz/
    Loathes /lə[FONT=&quot]ʊ[/FONT]ðz/
    Clothe
    Loathe
    Farms /f[FONT=&quot]ɑ[/FONT]ːmz/
    Farm
    Warns /w[FONT=&quot]ɔ[/FONT]rnz /w[FONT=&quot]ɔ[/FONT]ːnz/
    Warn
    Connected Speech:
    Finally, when speaking in sentences the ending consonant sounds can change based on the following words. This is often referred to as 'connected speech'. Here is an example of a change from a voiced 'b' in the word 'club' to a voiceless 'p' because of the voiced 't' of 'to' of the following word:
    We went to the club to meet some friends.
    Here is an example of a change from a voiced'd' past simple verb changed to voiceless't':
    We played tennis yesterday afternoon.
    Best Of Luck. Mr. Ahmed Saleh