Grammar :Articles:By Ms. M.An English teacherA-We use (the) when:1- We think of a specific thing (Tim sat down on the chair nearest the door.2-there is only one of something e.g. the sun\moon\equator\earth.3-we say :the sky\the sea\the ground\the country\the environment\the same\the cinema\the theatre\the radio.4-a specific type of animal or a thing e.g.(the giraffe is the tallest of all animals.The young the disabled the deaf the elderly the unemployedThe homeless the blind the injured the rich the old 5-We use the+ adjective without a noun to talk about a groups of people: 6-With the ****s of some countries\seas\rivers\oceans\canals\deserts\mountain ranges: The Czech Republic the Netherlands the United Kingdom the Philippines The Atlantic Ocean the Mediterranean Sea the Nile The Suez Canal the Channel the Sahara Desert the Alps 7-Some famous places\ regions\newspapers and organizations :The White House the Kremlin the Pentagon the Sheraton HotelThe Middle East the Far East the south-east of the north of The Red Cross the European Union the B.B.C B-We don’t use( the )when:1-With the ****s of meals( breakfast ,lunch, dinner)2-with the words (bed, work ,home)3-with the words(school, prison, college , university, church, hospital)when we think of them as general ideas.4-We are talking about things or people in general e.g.(I don’t like dogs)5-We say most people \most books\most cars (not the most books)6-****s of universities \airports\streets\parks\airlines:Harvard University Buckingham Palace Wall Street Manchester Airport Hyde Park Sydney Harbour Reading ListA-Language Awareness :1-English Grammar in Use. Raymond Murphy.2-Understanding and Using English Grammar .Betty Azar.3-Advanced Vocabulary & Idiom. B J Thomas4-New Person to Person. Communicative Speaking and Listening Skills. Jack C. Richard ,David Bycina, Sue Brioux.5-Reading Power .Beatrice S., Linda Jeffries.6-Essential Idioms in English. Robert J. Dixson.7-Better English Pronunciation . J. D. O'Connor.8-Writing in English .Anita Pincas.9-New Interchange .English for International Communication. Jack C. Richards.10-English Vocabulary in Use. Michael McCarthy. Felicity O'Dell. B-Teaching English:1- How to Teach English . Jeremy Harmer.2-A Course in Language Teaching. Penny Ur.3-Techniques in Teaching Writing . Ann Raimes.4-Essential Speaking Skills. Joann Westrup.5-Teaching English As a Foreign Language. Ali Abu.Ghararah6-Internet For English Teaching. Mark Warschauer. C-Publishers: 1-Longman:ELT Connection9http:\\www.aw-elt.com) 2-Oxford University Press ELT:http://www.oup.com\elt\ 3-Cambridge University Press ElT:http://www.cambridge.org\elt. D-Dictionaries: 1-Longman Active Study Dictionary. 2-Collins English Dictionary. 3-Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. 4-Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics .